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  What is retina?
    Retina is the innermost photosensitive layer of the eye.
    It is connected to the brain via the optic nerve
  What are the parts of retina?
  Macula (central retina) - appreciation of fine details, reading and color vision
  Peripheral retina - functions for night vision
  What are the symptoms of retinal disease?
  Sudden or gradual decrease in vision
  Loss of field of vision
  Flashes of light
  Objects appearing distorted (Metamorphopsia)
  Night Blindness
    Regular eye examinations if the patient is diabetic, hypertensive and over forty years.
  What are the diseases that affect the retina?
    Common diseases include
  Diabetes mellitus
  Age related macular degeneration
  Infectious diseases
  Heriditary degeneration
  Congenital degeneration
    Rarely drugs used for some systemic diseases affect the retina
What are Floaters?
You may sometimes see small specks or clouds moving in your field of vision. They are called floaters. You can often see them when looking at a plain background, like a blank wall or blue sky. While these objects look like they are in front of your eye, they are actually floating inside. What you see are the shadows they cast on the retina. Floaters can have different shapes: little dots, threads, circles, lines, clouds or cobwebs .
  What causes floaters?
When people reach middle age, the vitreous gel may start to shrink, forming clumps or strands inside the eye.
Posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) : The vitreous gel pulls away from the retina, causing a posterior vitreous detachment. It is a common cause of floaters.

PVD is more common for people who:
  are shortsighted or myopes ;
  have undergone cataract operations;
  have had YAG laser of the eye;
  have had inflammation inside the eye / any trauma
  Infectious diseases
  Heriditary degeneration
  Congenital degeneration
    Rarely drugs used for some systemic diseases affect the retina.
The retina can tear if the shrinking vitreous gel pulls away from the retina. This sometimes causes a small amount of bleeding in the eye that may appear as new floaters.
A torn retina is always a serious problem, since it can lead to a retinal detachment. You should see your retina specialist as soon as possible if even one new floater appears suddenly or you see sudden flashes of light or if you notice other symptoms like the loss of side vision
  What can I do about Floaters?
Floaters can get in the way of clear vision, which may be quite annoying, especially if you are trying to read. You can try moving your eyes, looking up and then down to move the floaters out of the way.
While some floaters may remain in your vision, many of them will fade over time and become less bothersome. Once your retina is examined and everything is normal, you can ignore the floaters.
  What causes flashes of lights?
When the vitreous gel rubs or pulls on the retina, you may see what look like flashing lights or lightning streaks. You may have experienced this same sensation if you have ever been hit in the eye and seen "stars."
The flashes of light can appear off and on for several weeks or months. As we grow older, it is more common to experience flashes. If you notice the sudden appearance of light flashes, you should visit your Eye sspecialist immediately to see if the retina has any problem.
  What is the treatment of a retinal tear / hole ?
If the tear has not caused a retinal detachment(RD) then a laser is done surrounding the hole / tear to seal it. This reduces the risk of RD. However you need to regularly follow up with a retina specialist as new holes / tears can still form
Retinal Tear
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