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    The human eye functions like a Camera. A Cataract is not an additional layer but merely the clouding of its focussing lens.
Vision Through Cataract
Cut Section of the eye with cataract
Eye with Cataract
Cataract surgery
Cataract surgery involves removal of this clouded lens and Its replacement with a synthetic lens at the same time.(There is no other way of treating a cataract)
The Safest and most sophisticated way is by Phacoemulsification with foldable IOL implantation (wrongly called "laser"), in which a small puncture is made in the eye, the Cataract emulsified using ultrasound energy and then sucked out (in contrast to older methods where in a large cut of 10-15 mm was made to remove the cataract in one piece).

This makes the surgery safer,with virtually no restrictions on the patient post-operatively,less painful and provides far better and quicker visual result.
  Foldable lenses
A fairly large lens needs to be inserted in the eye during surgery in order to restore its focusing power (the power of the intraocular lens is precalculated with an "A" scan biometer). Today we have soft foldable lenses which can be folded and inserted through the Phacoemulsification puncture and then unfolded within the eye. Hence, the incision remains microscopic. Though a bit expensive, the combination of Phacoemulsification with the insertion of a foldable intraocular lens is today considered the very best way of treating a cataract..

The surgery is painless, lasts less than 10 min and the patient is sent home immediately (no hospital stay is needed and patients can get back to their normal activities, including work & TV viewing right away.) Post-operative care is minimal. Though good vision is restored quickly, glasses may still be needed for very fine vision eg.reading.
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